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Volume-2 Issue-4: Published on April 15, 2016
Volume-2 Issue-4: Published on April 15, 2016

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Volume-2 Issue-4, April 2016, ISSN: 2394-0913 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Md. Didarul Islam, Fazrin Huda

Paper Title:

Religion and Politics: Bangladesh Perspective

Abstract: Political use of religion is a common feature in Indian subcontinent from the very time of the advent of the Aryans. They used religion as a political weapon and their seed has become like a Banyan tree. And that’s why still today, Bangladesh, Pakistan and India all are suffering due to religion based politics. It is considered as the most important element of communalism. But in Bangladesh communalism was not acute in ancient period. During the last phase of the British period and more especially in Pakistan period, religion became the most powerful weapon for the ruling class. The birth of Muslim League and the technical transformation of Congress tenderness towards Hindus during British period were based on religion. The Pakistani rulers tried to use religion as the handmaiden of oppression. So, being aware of the devastating fact of the use of religion in politics, the then Awami League had to take decision considering a very sensitive issue whether religion based politics should be banned or not. The present article emphasizes the main issues of the roots of the political usage of religion in Bangladesh and its implications in the social phenomenon.

Religion, Politics, Political Use of religion, secularism, Communalism.


1.             Anisuzzaman, ‘Daharmarastra, Dharmanirapeksata o Rastraddharma’, Abu M. Delowar, ed.,  ‘Bangladesher Rajnitite Dharma o Dharmanirapeksata’ (Dhaka: Prerana Publications, 1993)
2.             Anisuzzaman, Communalism and Secularism, BPL, Dhaka, 2015.

3.             Haq, Abul Quashem Fazlul, ‘Dharmabhittik Rajneeti O Rajneetite Dharmer Opobyabohar’ in Haq, Abul Quashem Fazlul,  Best Essays, Kathaprakash Publications, 2013.

4.             Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Government Press, Dhaka, 2011.

5.             Election Menifesto, Bangladesh Awami League, 2008.(Available at last retrieved March 12, 20016.

6.             Islam, K.N., ‘State, Religion and Culture: Modern Age’ in Ahmed, E. U & Rashid, H. O. eds., Politics and Culture, Bangladesh Asiatic Society, Dhaka,2007.

7.             Islam, Didarul, ‘Political Use of Religion in Bangladesh’, The Daily Sun, January 29, 2014.

8.             Mahmud, Anu, Bangabandhu in Gana Parisada and Parliament, National Publication, Dhaka, 2011.

9.             O’ Connell, Joseph T., “The Bengali Muslim and the State: Secularism or Humanityfor Bangladesh?” in Ahmed, Rafiuddin. Ed., Understanding the Bengali Muslims, UPL, Dhaka, 2001.

10.           Mohsin, Amena A., ‘Religion, Politics and Security: the Case of Bangladesh’ in Journal of Journal of Asia-Pacific Center for Religious Studies, 1984, available at, last retrieved March 10, 2016.

11.           Riaz, Ali,  How did We Arrive Here, Prothoma Publications, Dhaka , 2015.

12.           Riaz, Ali, Inconvenient Truths about Bangladesh Politics, Prothoma Publications, Dhaka, 2012.

13.           Sharif, Ahmed, Humanism and Secularism, Sandesh Publications, Dhaka, 2004

14.           Wahid, Zeenat Huda, The Problem of Middle Class and Nationalism in Bangladesh, Provati Publications, Dhaka, 2008.




Aaron J. Gordon

Paper Title:

The Outsourcing Function for Human Resource Projects: A Path-Goal Theory Approach

Abstract:  Existing research has focused on the utilization of outsourcing as a function for human resources. However, applying project management principles to human resource outsourcing has not been studied. This report examines the application of project management principles when outsourcing specific functions of human resources, specifically through a path-goal theory of leadership. This theoretical discussion examines the strengths and weaknesses associated with outsourcing human resource functions. Next we discuss the relevance of project management principles to the function of outsourcing. By doing so, we conclude that the path-goal theory of leadership is an appropriate approach for human resource project managers when aligning tasks to staff competencies. In particular, the leadership styles of supportive and participative were most relevant approaches to such decision-making practices. It was found that outsourcing relational components of organizational tasks were not recommended due to the negative impact on organizational culture.

 Human resource management, Outsourcing, Path-goal theory, Project management.


1.             Baron, J.N., & Kreps, D.M. (1999). Strategic human resources: Frameworks for general managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
2.             Belcourt, M., & McBey, K. (2008). Strategic human resources planning (4th ed.). Toronto, Canada: Nelson Education.

3.             Bush, P. (2009). Leading independent contractors. Journal of Management Research, 9(2), 72-82.

4.             Butler, M.G., & Callahan, C.M. (2012). Human resource outsourcing: Market and operating performance effects of administrative HR functions. Journal of Business Research, 67(2), 218-224.

5.             Cacanas, Z. (2004). Passage to India. Human Resources, 46-50.

6.             Davidson, G. (2005). Why HR outsourcing continues to expand. Human Resource Management International Digest, 13(3), 3-5.

7.             Edgell, J., Meister, G.E., & Stamp, N.  (2008). Global sourcing trends in 2008. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 1(2), 173-180.

8.             Gustafson, K., & Kleiner, B.H. (1994). New developments in team building. Work Study, 43(8), 1.

9.             Gilley, K.M., Greer, C.R., & Rasheed, A.A. (2005). Human resource outsourcing and organizational performance in manufacturing firms. Journal of BusinessResearch, 57(3), 232-240.

10.           Greer, C.R. (2001). Strategy and human resources: A general managerial approach (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

11.           Indvik, J. (1986). Path-goal theory of leadership: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, 189-192.

12.           Kotabe, M.  (1998). Efficiency vs effectiveness orientation of global sourcing strategy: A comparison of U.S. and Japanese multinational companies. The Academy of Management Executive, 12(4), 107-119.

13.           Langton, N., Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T.A. (2016). Organizational behavior: Concepts, controversies, applications (7th ed.). Toronto, Canada: Pearson Canada Inc.

14.           Lilly, J.D., Gray, D.A., & Virick, M. (2005). Outsourcing the human resource function: environmental and organizational characteristics that affect HR performance. Journal of Business Strategies, 22(1), 55-73.

15.           Most, A. (2006). Creating empowerment teams helps multiply productivity. Plant Engineering, 60(10), 29-30.

16.           Peak, D.A., Windsor, J.C., & Conover, J. (2001). Risks and effects of is/it outsourcing: a securities market assessment. Journal of IT Cases and Applications (JITCA), 4(1).

17.           Project Management Institute. (2013). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (5th ed.). Newton Square, PA.

18.           Project Management Institute. (2008). The standard for portfolio management (2nd ed.). Newton Square, PA.

19.           Richards, L. (2004). HR must stop stumbling over age-old concepts. Personnel Today, 19.
20.           Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational behavior (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
21.           Schriesheim, C., & Neider, L. (1996). Path-goal leadership theory: The long and winding road. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 317.

22.           Snow, J.  (2005). UK call centers: Crossroads of an industry. Journal of Property Investment & Finance, 23(6), 525-532.

23.           Whitener, J.K. (2007). Year of wonders: The wonder of leadership. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(2), 214-235.





Sahab Singh

Paper Title:

Dilemma Between Ethics and Ethical Business Practices in Recent Scenario

Abstract:   Customers are the receiving point of any organization to decide the existence and survival of any business. In such a competitive market where survival of fittest rule applies, ethical business actually creates a difference. Because, all customers look on quality, time value of money and price value of product every time, whenever the goods and services are supposed to be purchase. Organizations that implement their business strong ethically and behave with all possible partners in a decent way will only experience the benefits of improved business, increased customer loyalty, better employee retention, and strong positive reputation in market with large profit in different flavors of juice among society. As a consequence, these organizations will have a greater chance at achieving prolonged existence and profitability. This paper depicts on how the business can create value for the customers and society by exercising ethical business practices, and shifts the focus of business leaders to attain desired goals of high level customer satisfaction in place of maximizing their wealth. “Business Ethics is primarily concerned with the relationship of business goals and techniques to specific human needs”. - Thomas M. Garrett

  Customer, Ethics, Business, Satisfaction


1.    United States of America by Institute of Management Accountants, “Values and Ethics: From Inception to Practice”, 2008
2.    R. Edward Freeman & Lisa Stewart, “Developing Ethical Leadership”, Business Roundtable Institute for Corporate Ethics, pp-3&4,

3.    The Times 100 Business Case Studies, “Ethical Business Practices: A Cadbury Schweppes Case Study”, 2013,

4.    Ethics Resource Center, “The National Business Ethics Survey (NBES)-2005”, Washington, D.C., 2005

5.    ECLOF, Philippines Foundation, Inc., “Value Centered Social Performance Management A Guidebook”, 2013, 

6.    The Hay Group, “The Retention Dilemma: Why productive Workers Leave-Seven Suggestions for Keeping Them”, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The Hay Group, 2001

7.    “A Guide to Designing and Implementing Grievance Mechanisms for Development Projects”, Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman, 2008,

8.    Bowen. S., “The Business of Truth-A Guide to Ethical Communication”, IABC Research Foundation, 2006

9.    Gebler. D., “Creating an Ethical Culture”, Strategic Finance, May 2006.





Kayhan Kaplan

Paper Title:

Computer-aided Animation of Antioch’s Ancient City Walls and the Sights about the Process of Urbanization

Abstract: In this study, Antakya city walls constructed in several period and the city gates which make it possible to access to city are examined and an attempt is made to produce opinions about the city size, population and outdoor areas. With small parts of Antakya city wall standing in our days, Antakya city walls are predicted to be more than 20 km long and to accommodate more than 300 towers in Hellenistic Period. In addition, there are gates which create the city connection on the city walls. These gates are magnificent structures and provide information about architectural characteristics of the period.  Although the city walls lose its importance in the following centuries, the gates continue its existence as the most important centers where the public gathers and has a rest. In this study, Antakya city walls and gates in the Hellenistic period are animated with the computer-supported three-dimensional views. In modeling the city walls and gates, a great deal of gravures, pictures and historical photos are used as well as many archeological excavation reports made in several periods. In this study, the aim is to have chance to understand the architectural and historical connections within the entirety of the region generally and also people and buildings with the help of three-dimensional building presentations prepared on the basis of historical information.

  3-D reconstruction, Ancient cities, Antioch, digital archeology, virtual heritage


1.       C. Kondoleon, Ed., Antioch: The Lost Ancient City. USA: Princeton University Press, 2000.
2.       S. P. Kloeg, “Antioch the Great Population and economy of second-century Antioch,” Leiden University, 2013.

3.       M. R. Sbeinati, R. Darawcheh, and M. Mouty, “The historical earthquakes of Syria: An analysis of large and moderate earthquakes from 1365 B.C. to 1900 A.D,” Ann. Geophys., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 347–435, 2005.

4.       Sandwell and J. Huskinson, Culture and Society in late Roman Antioch. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2003.

5.       G. Brands, “Orientis apex pulcher – Die Krone des Orients. Antiochia und seine Mauern in Kaiserzeit und Spätantike,” Antike Welt. 35, Darmstadt / Deutschland, pp. 10–16., 2004.

6.       S. Williams, Diocletian and the Roman Recovery. New Fetter ane London: Routledge, 2000.

7.       H. Dey, “Art, Ceremony, and City Walls: The Aesthetics of Imperial Resurgence in the Late Roman West,” J. Late Antiq., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3–37, 2010.

8.       G. Downey, A History Of Antioch In Syria: From Seleucus To The Arab Conquest, Reprint of. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1961.

9.       F. Norman, Libanius. Autobiography and Selected Letters. London: Cambridge, 1993.

10.    R. Morey, “The Excavation of Antioch on the Orontes,” Am. Philos. Soc., vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 637–651, 1936.

11.    Ecclestone, “Antiochepedia = Musings Upon Ancient Antioch,” 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 15-Oct-2015]