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Exploring Innovation| ISSN:2394-0913(Online)| Published by BEIESP| Impact Factor:2.13
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Volume-1 Issue-2: Published on November 15, 2014
22
Volume-1 Issue-2: Published on November 15, 2014

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Volume-1 Issue-2, November 2014, ISSN: 2394-0913 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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1.

Authors:

Deniz Iscioglu

Paper Title:

Urban Separation: Nicosia

Abstract: The concept of “city” was defined in different ways in different periods of history. The definition of city varies between historic periods. The concept of “dual city” emerges with gaining importance of economic factors in the city. Social inequality gradually increases in cities with the global economic system. Social inequality gradually increases in cities with the global economic system. This causes urban separations (division). Cities can divide into economic and social segments as well as administrative and physical segments due to political issues. urban planning is one of the most important tools to be used by urban administers to prevent “urban separation” and “urban inequality”. This study addresses Nicosia as a divided city. The purpose of this study is to explain importance of urban planning for resolution of problems in divided cities. In this respect, it will be addressed how political problems in the country put an effect on Nicosia. The study also covers how the problems caused by urban separation will be resolved with urban planning. Besides urban and environmental problems, unplanned urbanization causes political and economic problems in Nicosia case. It is possible with political discretions of societies to ensure Northern Nicosia and Southern Nicosia which have been continuing development as two different cities for 40 years in a country which seeks for permanent peace on the island, maintain existence as a single city and Nicosia becomes an EU capital in integrity. Planning for development of the city would provide benefits for both Northern and Southern Nicosia.  

Keywords:
Urban Planning, Urban Separation, Dual City, Urban Division, Nicosia.


References:

1.        R. Keleş, Kentleşme Politikası, (10th ed.) İmge Kitabevi, Ankara, 2008, pp.27.
2.        L. Mumford, “What is a City”, Architectural Record, 1937, pp.92-96. (http://www.contemporaryurbananthropology.com/pdfs/Mumford,%20What%20is%20a%20City_.pdf) access date: 1.05.2014.

3.        T. Cassiers and C. Kesteloot, “Socio-spatial Inequalities and Social Cohesion in European Cities”, Urban Studies, SAGE, 49(9), pp. 1909–1924, July 2012.

4.        R. V.  Kempen and A. Murie, The New Divided City: Changing Patterns In European Cities, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, Published by Blackwell Publishing, 2009.

5.        P. Marcuse, What’s So New About Divided Cities?, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Blackwell, 17 (3), 355- 365, 1993.

6.        G. Williams, Political Theory in Retrospect, From the Ancient Greeks to the 20th Century, Edward Elgar Publishing, UK, 1991, pp.8.

7.        L. Mumford, The Story of Utopias, Global Grey (web edition), pp.18, 2013. (http://www.globalgrey.co.uk/Books/Misc/Story-Of-Utopias.pdf) access date: 13.05.2014.

8.        R. Keleş, Kentbilim Terimleri Sözlüğü, İmge Kitabevi, Ankara, 1998, pp.116.

9.        J. Calame and E. Charles worth, Divided Cities: Belfast, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mostar, and Nicosia, University of Pennsylvania Press, USA, 2009.

10.     R. A. Atun and N. Doratlı, “Walls in Cities: A Conceptual Approach to the Walls of Nicosia”, Geopolitics, 14:108–134, Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.

11.     Official web site of the Turkish Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (http://www.mfa.gov.tr/kibris-tarihce.tr.mfa), access date: 14.07.2014.

12.     TRNC State Planning Organization, (http://www.devplan.org/Nufus-2011/nufus%20son_.pdf), access date: 14.07.2014.

13.     Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus Statistics Office, (http://www.mof.gov.cy/mof/cystat/statistics.nsf/populationcondition_21main_en/populationcondition_21main_en?OpenForm&sub=1&sel=2), access date:24.07.2014

14.     R. A. Atun, and H.  Atun, Sustainability and the Role of Urban Governance within the Changing Political and Spatial Context of the Northern Cyprus, 6. Uluslararası Kıbrıs Araştırmaları Kongresi, 24-26 Ekim, Kıbrıs Araştırmaları Merkezi, Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Kuzey Kıbrıs. (2007).

15.     G. Hadjimichael, Land Use Planning System in Cyprus – Planning Around Seveso II Establishments and Planning of New Establishments, Town Planning and Housing Department, 24 September 2012. (http://www.mlsi.gov.cy/mlsi/dli/dli.nsf/All/C134292512AC629CC2257A7E004CED86/$file/Hadjimichael[1].pdf) acess date:22.05.2014

16.     The Department of Town Planning and Housing (Republic Of Cyprus), Official web page (http://www.moi.gov.cy/moi/urbanguard/urbanguard.nsf/dmltph_en/dmltph_en?OpenDocument) access date: 22.05.2014 
TRNC Constitution,1985
17.     D. İşçioğlu, (2009), KKTC Kentsel Politikası Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. Aksaray Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.1, No:1, pp.149-161.

18.     http://www.spd.gov.ct.tr/Portals/103/1.0%20Plan%20Alan%C4%B1.pdf , access date: 21.07.2014.

19.     Northern Cyprus Urban Planning Office, (http://www.sehirplanlama.org/index.php?option=com_kunena&func=view&catid=187&id=1500&Itemid=36), access date: 21.07.2014.

20.     H.  M. Gürkan, Dünkü ve Bugünkü Lefkoşa, Galeri Kültür Yayınları, Lefkoşa, 2009, pp.11-12.

21.     A. L. Salvator, Kıbrıs’ın Başkenti Levkosia, (Çev. Vur Yektaoğlu), Galeri Kültür Yayınları, Lefkoşa, 2012, pp.9.

22.     M, Ersoy (ed.), Kentsel Planlama Kuramları, İmge Kitabevi, Ankara, 2007, pp.10. (http://www.melihersoy.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/9-340.pdf) access date:22.05.2014.

23.     PRIO, Cyprus Center (http://www.prio-cyprus-displacement.net/default.asp?id=336) access date: 23.05.2014

24.     Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus, 1960 (http://www.kktcb.org/upload/pdf/77826.pdf) access date: 23.05.2014.

25.     (http://www.conflictincities.org/Nicosia.html) access date:23.05.2014

26.     United Nations Peace Keeping Force in Cyprus, Official web side (http://www.unficyp.org/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=1592) access date: 23.05.2014

27.     V. Yorucu, (2012), “Güney Kıbrıs ekonomisi Allah’a emanet”, (http://www.starkibris.net/index.asp?haberID=133625), access date: 10.07.2014

28.     (http://www.kibrisgazetesi.com/?p=5653), access date: 14.07.2014

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2.

Authors:

Md. Nazmul Huda, Mohammad Tajuddin 

Paper Title:

A Contrastive Review of Subjectivity: Tennyson and Arnold

Abstract: This article makes an attempt to scrutinize the influence and motivation of Christianity upon the minds of the Victorians as to how they welcome or react the principles of their religion which they considered the only ultimate life-shaping creed in every sphere of their lives as well as those of mankind. The crisis started as there appeared tremendous contradiction between the scientific truth and their Biblical regulations and predictions. Faith, then, suffered a stone-hard blow. To them, failure of Christianity stood for the total collapse and meaninglessness of human life. Many lost their trust; some tried to restore it by rationalizing their frustration, but most of them turned nonchalant to religion, church and church authority, enthusiastically embracing tenets of humanism. The pain and anguish springing from the loss of faith resulted in the trends of the fluctuation between faith and misgiving, which was mirrored in most of the Victorians and their poems. Tennyson and Arnold were in the eerie of this whirlwind. General decay of faith in religion direly accounted for their melancholy and despondence. Reason rather than faith began to preoccupy their saddened minds. This article aims to record the personal pang, depression, inertia, agitation, and, at last, their consoling haven in their poems. Manifestation of subjective feelings especially of sadness was generally vented in lyricism which is superbly manipulated by both of them. The objective of this article is also to put forward some recommendations concerning how the poets could have got rid of these bleak sentiments of agnosticism, of swinging between doubt and faith, between science and religion.

Keywords:
Faith, doubt, conflict, agnosticism, and philosophic reflections.


References:

1.          Abrams, M. H. (1993). The Norton Anthology of English Literature. (Vol.  2). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
2.          Alexander, Edward. (2014). Matthew Arnold and John Stuart Mill. Oxon: Routledge.

3.          Burton, Hester. (1954). Tennyson. London: Oxford University Press.

4.          Cazamian, Louis. (1996). History of English Literature. New Delhi: Macmillan, India Limited.

5.          Ebbatson, Roger. (1988). Penguin Critical Studies: Tennyson. London: Penguin Books Ltd.

6.          Goetz, Philip W. (1986). The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (Vol.7). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.

7.          Gottfried, Leon. (1963). Matthew Arnold and the Romantics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

8.          Hill, Robert W. (Ed.). (1999). Tennyson’s Poetry. London: W. W. Norton & Company.

9.          Peltason, Timothy. (Ed.). (1994). Matthew Arnold: Selected Poems. London: Penguin Books Ltd.

10.       Scott Ian & Kilvert. (1982). British Writers. (Vol. V). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

11.       Zeleny, Robert O. (1988). The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, Inc., A Scott Fetzer Company.


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