Abstract: The concept of “city” was defined in different ways in different periods of history. The definition of city varies between historic periods. The concept of “dual city” emerges with gaining importance of economic factors in the city. Social inequality gradually increases in cities with the global economic system. Social inequality gradually increases in cities with the global economic system. This causes urban separations (division). Cities can divide into economic and social segments as well as administrative and physical segments due to political issues. urban planning is one of the most important tools to be used by urban administers to prevent “urban separation” and “urban inequality”. This study addresses Nicosia as a divided city. The purpose of this study is to explain importance of urban planning for resolution of problems in divided cities. In this respect, it will be addressed how political problems in the country put an effect on Nicosia. The study also covers how the problems caused by urban separation will be resolved with urban planning. Besides urban and environmental problems, unplanned urbanization causes political and economic problems in Nicosia case. It is possible with political discretions of societies to ensure Northern Nicosia and Southern Nicosia which have been continuing development as two different cities for 40 years in a country which seeks for permanent peace on the island, maintain existence as a single city and Nicosia becomes an EU capital in integrity. Planning for development of the city would provide benefits for both Northern and Southern Nicosia.
Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Separation, Dual City, Urban Division, Nicosia.
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Abstract: This article makes an attempt to scrutinize the influence and motivation of Christianity upon the minds of the Victorians as to how they welcome or react the principles of their religion which they considered the only ultimate life-shaping creed in every sphere of their lives as well as those of mankind. The crisis started as there appeared tremendous contradiction between the scientific truth and their Biblical regulations and predictions. Faith, then, suffered a stone-hard blow. To them, failure of Christianity stood for the total collapse and meaninglessness of human life. Many lost their trust; some tried to restore it by rationalizing their frustration, but most of them turned nonchalant to religion, church and church authority, enthusiastically embracing tenets of humanism. The pain and anguish springing from the loss of faith resulted in the trends of the fluctuation between faith and misgiving, which was mirrored in most of the Victorians and their poems. Tennyson and Arnold were in the eerie of this whirlwind. General decay of faith in religion direly accounted for their melancholy and despondence. Reason rather than faith began to preoccupy their saddened minds. This article aims to record the personal pang, depression, inertia, agitation, and, at last, their consoling haven in their poems. Manifestation of subjective feelings especially of sadness was generally vented in lyricism which is superbly manipulated by both of them. The objective of this article is also to put forward some recommendations concerning how the poets could have got rid of these bleak sentiments of agnosticism, of swinging between doubt and faith, between science and religion.
Keywords: Faith, doubt, conflict, agnosticism, and philosophic reflections.
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